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Chapter 2

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Structural Mapping Techniques and Tools

In Chapter 2 we ‘find our bearings’ in order to locate outcrops in the field and construct maps of geological structures. Geographic coordinates are used by the Global Positioning System (GPS) for location (see above) and the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection is used to project geographic information from Earth's curved surface onto a piece of paper. We describe a modern mapping campaign that utilized GPS technology to create a precise structure contour map in a region where four sets of faults intersect to disrupt and fold the surrounding strata. The mapping was accomplished in a fraction of the time and with much greater control than previously possible. We anticipate a new generation of structural maps that will provide the impetus for more specific modeling of tectonic processes and the data to better constrain those models.

Exercises

Concepts from Chapter 2

These exercises explore concepts from Chapter 2 including the gnomonic and Mercator projections, 2- and 3-dimensional transformation of coordinates, and use of the equal angle stereonet to plot the orientations of planar and linear structural elements.

Chapter 2 Concepts DOC Chapter 2 Concepts PDF

Solutions

Chapter 2 Concepts Solutions DOC Chapter 2 Concepts Solutions PDF

Mapping dikes at Ship Rock

This exercise introduces the position vector for mapping geological contacts and the translation and rotation of a local coordinate system to a map with standardized coordinates. The thickness variations along a dike also are examined to investigate physical mechanisms operating during emplacement of the magma.

Ship Rock Mapping DOC Ship Rock Mapping PDF

Data

Ship Rock Contact TXT

Solutions

Ship Rock Mapping Solutions DOC Ship Rock Mapping Solutions PDF

Mapping faults at Chimney Rock

In this exercise we consider basic concepts and tools for mapping geological structures and for analyzing the orientations of linear and planar structural elements. Both structural maps and stereographic projections are prepared using ten data sets for faults from Chimney Rock, Utah. The spherical variance is used to evaluate the clustering of orientation data.

Chimney Rock Mapping DOC Chimney Rock Mapping PDF

Data

Blueberry TXT Glass TXT North TXT Canyon TXT

Cottonwood TXT Hidden TXT La Sal TXT Middle TXT

Short TXT Wrong TXT

Kinematics of faulting at Chimney Rock

The kinematics of faulting are examined at Chimney Rock, Utah. Slickenlines on exposed fault surfaces are used to analyze the direction of slip and to investigate how these directions vary along a fault. Structure contours are constructed from GPS data for the Carmel and Navajo formations and these are used to identify faults and to measure the magnitude of slip.

Chimney Rock Kinematics DOC Chimney Rock Kinematics PDF

Data

Blueberry TXT Carmel 1 TXT Carmel 2 TXT Carmel 3 TXT

Navajo TXT

Figures

The following button links to a folder in Box where images from the text and images that are supplementary to those found in the text live.

Chapter 2 Figures

Scripts

The following button links to a folder in Box where MATLAB scripts (.m) geared for the MATLAB editor live.

Chapter 2 Scripts

Two men standing looking down at a device